Between July 1941 and July 1944, approximately 70,000 people of whom over half were Jewish were murdered at this site by the Nazi Security Police (Gestapo), the SS security service and the Vilniaus ypatingasis burys (Vilnius Special Squad), in which the majority were Lithuanians. Find several monuments and the remains of pits where the victims were killed and burned. A tiny museum inside the territory displays copies of archival photographs – not recommended for children – and documents, explained in an irregular mix of languages. Paneriai (Ponar to the Jews, Ponary to the Poles, Paneriai to the Lithuanians) is about 10km southwest of the Old Town. Catch a Trakai- or Kaunas-bound train, get off at Paneriai, turn right from the station and walk about 800 metres along Agrastu Street. The site is at the end of the road. To get there by car, leave Vilnius via Švitrigailos Street and follow the same road, bearing right on Eišiškiu plentas (near the Statoil fuel station) and then follow the signs. You also can reach the memorial via the city’s western bypass keeping the direction to Lyda and Minsk. It’s possible to find using a GPS or online route planner (e.g. www.google.com/maps). Going by bus is complicated, entailing several changes. For a chilling eyewitness account of the events that took place here, read Kazimierz Sakowicz’s extraordinary book Ponary Diary, 1941-1943, published by Yale, or Martin Winstone’s book The Holocaust Sites of Europe: An Historical Guide published by I B Tauris.