What today is a small quaint village with only 1,200 inhabitants, located 52km north-west of Warsaw and 18km south of Płońsk (the county's administrative capital), Czerwińsk nad Wisła (Czerwińsk on the Vistula), was once a mediaeval settlement in the Duchy ofMasovia (formed after the fragmentation of the Polish kingdom of the Polish Piast dynasty in 1138) and was only incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. Czerwińsk was granted city rights in 1373 that lasted right up until 1870, by which point the area's importance had waned over the centuries due to a number of factors, including invasions (Swedish Deluge of 1655-60 and flooding from the river, to name a couple). The settlement itself has been around much longer, however, and the first documented mention of it was in a papal document in 1155 during the papacy of Hadrian IV, making reference to the monastery in the village. It is because of the monastery that there has been a near permanent human presence here for almost 1000 years. The Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (kościół Zwiastowania Najświętszej Marii Panny), built in the 12th century, is an important one in the region, not least because of its original mediaeval Romanesque architecture, but also because much of the original interiors survived the many wars to touch the region throughout history. It was here that in 1410, on the way to the Battle of Grunwald (First Battle of Tannenberg) that King Władyłsaw II Jagiełło camped with his troops before linking up with Lithuanian troops on their way to battle the Teutonic Order. Signs of their visit remain today as folklore holds that the door columns found at the entrance to the church bear the scars of soldiers sharpening their swords in preparation for battle. Today, although not much remains to show this was once a city, the village contains small old houses and buildings, once typical architecture all over Poland, and the riverside location is popular with locals who like to venture out on the waters on their boats. The best way to get to Czerwińsk is by car, unless you are part of a religious pilgrimage arriving by coach. To get there using public transport from Warsaw, you will need to take a bus from Warsaw West Main Bus Station, from where you have a choice of using a public PKS bus (going to Płock, journey time 1h 45mins) or private bus company (Eko Bus, 55mins). We recommend you check the fantastic e-podróżniksite for all bus times.