The word Solidarity, or Solidarność as it was in Polish, is synonymous with the city of Gdansk. Although the movement which burst into life at the time of the shipyard strikes of 1980 is closely connected with Gdansk, the phenomenon that was Solidarność was not confined to the city. If truth be told there are other cities in Poland which feel that Gdansk has unfairly become the symbol for a movement that connected with and was born from Poles throughout the country. But for the foreign visitor with a memory of the 1980 strikes the image of Solidarity is Gdansk, its shipyards and the leader of the protests - Lech Wałęsa.
The story of Solidarity is a more complicated one than most foreign visitors will be aware of. Although the movement and the trade union were officially christened in 1980, their roots can be traced back some ten years earlier. Protesting against plunging living standards workers at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk and other yards in Gdynia, Elblag and Szczecin took to the streets, with the army promptly called in to intervene.
Gdansk remained a ticking bomb for the authorities. With the seventies drawing to a close tensions started to rise again, with living standards falling and the economy in huge debt built on massive foreign loans. In August, 1980 the dismissal of female crane operator,Anna Walentynowicz at Gdansk’s Lenin Shipyards provided the spark for workers to go on strike. Workers already disillusioned with price increases and the falling value of their salaries were ready to take action. Lech Wałęsa and other activists were already planning strike action but it soon became clear that momentum within the yard was growing quickly and it was this that spurred Wałęsa, fired from the shipyard in 1976 for anti-government activities, to famously scale the wall of the Lenin shipyard to take control. Wałęsa with his trademark sharp trading managed to steer his colleagues away from mere wage demands towards the idea of creating a trade union movement to represent the workers and to fight injustice.
This time the workers learned from the mistakes of 1970 and did not confront the authorities but instead locked themselves into the shipyards. Three days later leaders representing workers from over 150 industrial plants, as well as crucially members from across the social spectrum in the country, met in the shipyards to hammer out 21 demands, including the legalisation of independent trade unions. Days of tension followed, with tanks and armed units stationed menacingly outside the gates of the yards. On August 31 the government backed down, agreeing to meet the 21 demands - thereby marking the first peaceful victory over communism. The agreement was famously signed in the shipyards by Lech Wałęsa using a large souvenir Pope John Paul II pen.
A month later, on September 22, delegates from 36 regional unions met in Gdansk forming a coalition under the name of Solidarity. Lech Wałęsa, the unlikely hero of August, was elected as chairman. The next few months marked a golden period for the nation; some ten million people joined the Solidarity movement, and Poland enjoyed a freedom unknown for decades.
Riding the crest of a wave Solidarity continued to lobby for further reforms and free elections, infuriating the Kremlin. With Soviet invasion a looming threat the Polish President, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, declared a state of martial law on December 13, 1981, and tanks once again rolled through the streets. Though Solidarity was officially dissolved, and its leaders imprisoned, it continued to operate underground. When Father Jerzy Popiełuszko, Solidarity’s chaplain, was abducted and murdered by the secret police over a million people attended his funeral.
Renewed labour strikes and a faltering economy forced Jaruzelski into initiating talks with opposition figures in 1988, and the following year Solidarity was once again granted legal status. Participating in Poland’s first post-communist election the party swept to victory, with Wałęsa leading from the front. Lech Wałęsa became the first freely elected president of Poland in December 1990 and served until 1995 when he lost the following election to Aleksander Kwasniewski, a former communist.
In spite of overseeing Poland’s transition to a market economy, the members of Solidarity started to splinter into new political groupings and the party gradually found its power being eroded by the emergence of fresher political parties. The 2000 elections for the Sejm (lower parliament) sounded the death knell for the party. Failing to even make the minimum vote to qualify for representation in parliament, the party which changed history found itself out of active politics. In recent years it has once again become the voice of protest as it campaigns against government policies such as job cuts and the raising of the pension age as Poland’s largest trade union.